UNIVERSAL GOD: Message of Peace
What is Compassion?
What is Compassion?…. Compassion can be described as the feeling or the expression of empathy and concern for others. Compassion means ‘to suffer together.’ It is the feeling that arises when you are confronted with another’s suffering and feel motivated to relieve that suffering.
In order for compassion to ‘flow’ - it is not enough to simply ‘feel’ it- we must develop our ability to ‘express’ or to ‘reveal’ it in a way that those who seek and need it are able to recognise it, receive it and use it to heal. In order for compassion to flow- there must be a willing Giver and a willing Receiver. Where there is free-will- Unless both parties are willing, there will be a blockage to the flow. And unless we acknowledge that there is always a Higher Source of Compassion, our compassion will always be limited. Unless we keep emptying our cups, what is left in the cup will turn stagnant and cause disease. For wherever there is a blockage to flow, there will be disease and illness. So, what is a True Doctor, if not just a willing physical vessel for the flow of Higher Compassion? What is a Patient if not just a willing physical recipient of Higher Compassion? Who is the True Giver of compassion to the givers of compassion? Who are the givers of compassion to the receivers of compassion? Who are the receivers of compassion from those who Give? Who is the True Receiver of compassion from within those who receive? What is the Higher Purpose of Compassion within medicine if not to help reveal the True Source of Giving and Receiving -to all givers and receivers, in order to reveal the receiver from within the giver and the giver from within the receiver? Are the Giver and Receiver not different sides of the same Being?
Why is compassion important?
My personal experience of being a physician is that ‘Compassion IS MEDICINE’, Compassion is a huge part of Healing- for both the giver and the recipient. When the patient gets better, that part of the doctor will also get better.
Doctors don’t always have the answer but from my experience I have seen that just listening to the patient and showing them that I care -is a huge part of the healing process. The act of ‘Giving’ through compassion- becomes a healing for the doctor when he or she is also open to be able to receive compassion from a Higher Source. The act of ’Receiving’ of compassion from the patient is a Healing when he or she able to acknowledge that the doctor is only a vessel for Higher Compassion, and then he or she is able to use this Healing to its Highest potential when he or she acknowledges that the higher purpose of his or her healing is so that he or she can then also continue to help others. When the doctor acknowledges the patient within them, and the patient acknowledges the doctor within them, and when we can start to see the doctor and patient within each and every one of us- then when we start to fulfil our Higher Purpose by acknowledging our Creator within us all, and by using our unique blessings gifts and talents in order to help each other- we continue the Healing process for all mankind. Our heightened awareness of the Oneness of humanity despite our diversity -will help to improve our emotional state on a collective as well as individual level and help us to heal together from our anxieties, depression, feelings of reduced self worth, feelings of hopelessness, our fears, our sorrows and negativity- and this improvement on our mental health will manifest as improved overall general sense of physical wellbeing, and reduce our overall perception of pain and suffering- by the Will of our Creator.
How can compassion help us?
Compassion is a Medicine and helps us to Heal. It is an essential part of Who we are, and it is vital for us to be connected to our Source of Compassion, and become a vessel for it, for the sake of our own Wellbeing and the wellbeing of all of Humanity.
What is ‘Medicine?’ … we tend to define Medicine as a practice, procedure or substance that is used for the prevention, treatment or relief of symptoms of disease or abnormal conditions. Many of us think of ‘medicine’ as a physical substance in the form of a liquid, capsule, cream, drops, inhalers, tablets, injections etc- and many of us associate’ medicine with doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers. But I want us today- to delve into exploring a more spiritual and deeper meaning of the word ‘medicine..’ Although there is a huge role and importance for the use of physical medicines and surgical procedures in order to help save and prolong life-does it really offer us an everlasting cure? Or does physical medicine simply cover over and mask our root cause of illness and disease? Does any physical medicine come without side effects? Can any medicine that is in a physical form truly help to heal spiritual illness from within or does it just distract us from our responsibility as human beings to purify our hearts minds and souls? Can any form of physical medicine help to cure mental illness? Do anti-depressants truly cure post traumatic stress, depression and anxiety or do they just cover over the symptoms and provide a temporary relief from the pain and suffering that results from the root cause of many of these conditions? I would like to see patients and doctors breaking free from our limited physical perception of medicine - to escape from the physical labels and expectations that we often have of medicine in today’s world- to a Place that is beyond just a ‘pill’ we take from the external to the internal as a temporary source of relief. I want to invite us all to seek more of a ‘cure’ and ‘healing’ that we can find from within, something easily accessible, free to Receive and free to Give, something that is Lasting and saves from spiritual, emotional psychological and physical pain and suffering. I want to invite us to start seeking Healing from a Place that is Near- a Place from within our hearts minds a soul- a Place of Higher Truth, while seeking the Source of Life where something is formed from nothing, through the spoken word ‘Be’ of our Creator- A Place of Sincerity love and selflessness, of Truth and Light and Compassion- where there is a flowing spring of Infinite Knowledge, Wisdom and Understanding- so that we can all have access to the True Source of Healing- the Doctor within each and every one of us, and start to Receive Compassion directly from its Source and give it to others in abundance.
What is Well-Being? What is the relationship between our physical, mental, emotional and spiritual wellbeing? Doctors are becoming more aware that addressing our non physical needs is just as important as addressing our physical needs, and that there cannot be True healing without there being peace, balance and harmony between the two opposite aspects of ourselves… Many people are able to acknowledge that physical illness has an impact on mental wellbeing- but how many of us are open to the possibility that perhaps the root cause of much of physical illness could in fact be from a Non-Physical Place? The human being is a body and a soul. Without either, we would not be human. My personal belief is that Our Soul is a Breath of Life from our Creator, and our Body is like the vessel through which Higher Truth becomes a physical manifestation of the word ‘Be’ through which we become able to connect the non physical with the physical, Heaven with earth, like vessels of Higher Truth and Compassion, also that a human being can become physical representative for the revelation of the Beautiful Attributes of our Creator here in the physical world- in order to transform darkness to Light within ourselves and others. Modern day medicine within the NHS tends to focus on healing the body through the physical, but unless we put more focus on healing the soul through non physical forms of medicine such as compassion, and acknowledge that human beings are more than just a physical body- and acknowledge the importance of morality, consciousness and self-awareness ; then we will never be able to heal from within or find that Balance in order to connect Our Higher Will with the will of the lower self. Unless the free will that belongs to our ego, willingly surrenders to the Will of its Creator in order to serve It, then there will always be a blockage to our perception of the flow of compassion within the giver receiver relationship. Many studies have shown that the practice of prayer, regular charitable giving, meditation, mindfulness, and self-reflection can have a huge impact on a person’s sense of ‘wellbeing’ through increasing our levels of self-awareness. Becoming more self-disciplined to incorporate these to help us focus on developing and refining ourselves in the areas of compassion, patience, kindness, gratitude, forgiveness, humility, and other important traits that are part of what it is to be ‘human’- have been shown to have a huge positive impact on our sense of well-being, and on improving our relationships with those around us. etc Therefore it is very important not to assume that medicine is available only in the form of pills or something that is ‘physical,’ but in fact is something that is accessible to all human beings who choose to self-reflect and refine or purify their character traits.
What are the causes for a block in flow of Compassion?
In order to better understand this- lets look at the root cause of breakdown of any Giver-Receiver Relationship- a parent child relationship? A teacher student relationship? A sibling relationship? A Marital relationship? A Business relationship? A Friendship? The relationship between our Creator and creation? The relationship between our Higher Self and our lower self? Both internal factors that are within our control, and external factors that are beyond our control can effect on our perception of the flow of compassion within our relationships. External causes that that we may perceive to be beyond our control may include the lack of willingness for one side to play its part, lack of Higher resources for provision of basic needs, or destructive external forces fuelled by ego, greed, envy, lust, sloth, fears, sorrow, anger, vengeance etc… Let’s look at the internal causes which are we are more likely to be able to control; What are the most important human character traits that a person requires in order to maintain any healthy Giver/Receiver relationship? What are the essential ingredients in the medicine required to heal our relationships? Is it not respect? compassion? unconditional love? Acts of loving kindness? Justice? Is it not forgiveness? Gratitude? Joy? Hope? Commitment? Loyalty? Patience? Perseverance? Humility? Courage? Truthfulness/honesty/Integrity/Trustworthiness? Are these not examples of the ways of Peace that each one of us can take responsibility for refining, in order to help mend and unite the broken pieces that divide and weaken our One body, spirit and soul?
Could it be that all of our physical symptoms of illness and perceived ‘lack’ of something in the physical is in fact just a physical manifestation of our spiritual ‘lack’ in one of these human essential traits either as an individual or as a collective whole? Could it be that how we experience and perceive the external is in fact just an outer layer or garment and physical manifestation of how we choose to Be and See from within? Could it be that whatever we perceive ourselves to lack in the physical is meant to be in order that we can allow others the opportunity to help complete us? And that what we have been blessed with by excess of our need, is in fact meant to be shared with those who have less than us? In this way we are all doctors and patients in one way or another so that we use the giver receiver relationship to grow and draw closer to our Creator through serving each other and improving our relationships In righteousness.
How can we become more compassionate?
It’s easy to say - lets be more compassionate… But HOW does one become more compassionate? Do we ‘learn’ to become more compassionate through the experience of pain, struggle and hardship in life or is it a given attribute that we have from Birth which we only need to discover and reveal? Or perhaps our Compassion a ‘Choice’? What has helped me feel more compassion for my patients? And can I increase my ability to feel and reveal compassion? How do I see myself in others and others in me? The truth is, I can choose to try to relate to the experience of others as much as possible from my own past experience, but unless I have experienced similar symptoms of loss and pain and suffering that a patient presents to me with -how can I feel true empathy and compassion for another person? So perhaps this can help us to better understand and accept the Higher Purpose of human suffering, pain, loss, hardship and struggles- in order that it can help to teach us Higher Compassion, and help bring us all back together again. Once we are able to perceive our Oneness within diversity, then we can draw closer to experiencing the Delight of what it is to Love our Creator with our hearts minds and souls, and love our fellow being as ourself. But In order to provide for the needs of others we must also look after ourself. How can we love others as ourself if we are unable even to love ourselves? In order to love ourselves we must have compassion on our self. We must have compassion even on our human imperfections.
The way I see it is that - All of the positive and negative human traits that are part of each and every one of us must co-exist if we are to have ‘free-will.’ In Reality- all of it, including the pain and suffering has within it hidden wisdom and therefore a Higher Purpose, and it is up to humanity to reveal the hidden wisdom and compassion within it all. We can heighten our Awareness of our Compassion by living a human life where we have free will, we make mistakes, we face personal loss hardship and struggle- we reflect on our negative experience, take out the wisdom from it- and use this to apply empathy and compassion to our relationships in the present. What we learn that causes us pain, we do not do to others. We treat one another how we want to be treated. We love for others what we love for ourselves. WE discover and reveal our compassion by suffering together, and then HELPING EACH OTHER using our unique blessings gifts and talents.
My Belief is that everything is made up of compassion because everything is made up of truth. For Truth is the word ‘Be’ where something is created from nothing. Without Truth, nothing would exist. And to reveal Compassion in its True form is the the Higher Purpose of the Human Being. The problem lies not in the lack of compassion within the human being, but in the blockage of our perception and ability to recognise it within ourselves and others, our blockage in our willingness to acknowledge its Source-and to connect to it so that it can flow through us abundantly. This blockage thickens when the human being chooses to stop seeking Higher Truth and the higher Good in everything, and uses his or her free will to choose to serve the lower self instead of the higher self. The lower self invites us to Feel and reveal false Ego, whereas our higher self invites us to paths of truth, peace, justice and unconditional love, in order that we become more selfless, and less selfish in our ways. Our Compassion is hidden within in the Breath and cell of every single human being. It is up to us to be willing to seek it, to find it and reveal it. I want to challenge our hearts and minds to try to see The Source of compassion in everything, and to Believe it Exists, even if we do not yet see or feel it. The more we work on purifying our own garments of free-will, thought, speech and behaviour, and perceive our connection to our Breath of Life- the more we too will be able to breathe this breath of life ( by the permission of our Creator) into physical existence and in order to raise the dead, heal the sick, cure the blind.
When we can see compassion in everything, we will feel less deprived in it ourselves and become more able to give it to others. Imagine if whichever way we turn we could see and reveal the Face of the Most Compassionate. We would have the ability to transform curses into blessings, darkness into light, and be able to see the good in one another despite our imperfect outer garments- in order that we can help guide others too to discover that Light within themselves in order that they too can shine. I invite us to try to help one another by sharing our unique blessings gifts and talents in any creative way we can in order that we can all become a doctor for a patient in need, in order that we can all Heal through our act of giving. Let us also openly receive from our fellow human being in order to grant them the opportunity to heal through giving. Let us peel away, purify or transform our outer garments so that our bodies can willingly and joyfully reveal the True Beauty of our Soul- and so that we can Be who we are meant to truly Be. Let’s discover and Reveal the Oneness of our Creator- The Most Compassionate, The Most Merciful Who is Hidden deep within the darkness of our souls. Let us seek The Most Compassionate within the soul of our fellow human, and then help others to discover and reveal it too. Let us see ourselves in others, and others in ourselves and Unite in The Righteousness of our Maker. Because we are all from One Soul, from One Body, from One Light. Each patient is an opportunity for a doctor to help another person. Each doctor is an opportunity for a patient to get closer to discovering and revealing the doctor within him or herself.
Scripture quotes on Compassion
‘In the Name of God, The Most Compassionate, The Most Merciful.’ ( Start of every chapter of The Quran)
‘And the LORD said, “I will cause all My Goodness to pass in front of you, and I will proclaim My Name, the LORD, in your presence. I will have Mercy on whom I will have Mercy, and I will have Compassion on whom I will have Compassion.’ Exodus 33:19
‘Yet the LORD longs to be Gracious to you; therefore He will rise up to show you Compassion. For the LORD is a God of Justice. Blessed are all who wait for Him!’ Isaiah 30:18
‘They will neither hunger nor thirst, nor will the desert heat or the sun beat down on them. He who has Compassion on them will Guide them and lead them beside springs of water.’ Isaiah 49:10
‘Shout for joy, you heavens; rejoice, you earth; burst into song, you mountains! For the LORD comforts his people and will have Compassion on His afflicted ones.’ Isaiah 49:13
‘Though the mountains be shaken and the hills be removed, yet My Unfailing Love for you will not be shaken nor My Covenant of Peace be removed,” says the LORD, Who has Compassion on you.’ Isaiah 54:10
‘I will tell of the Kindnesses of the LORD, the Deeds for which He is to be Praised, according to all the LORD has done for us— yes, the many good things he has done for Israel, according to His Compassion and many Kindnesses.’ Isaiah 63:7
‘As you know, we count as blessed those who have persevered. You have heard of Job’s perseverance and have seen what the Lord finally brought about. The Lord is full of Compassion and Mercy.’ James 5:11
‘Have Mercy on me, O God, according to Your Unfailing Love; according to Your Great Compassion blot out my transgressions.’ Psalm 51:1
‘As a father has compassion on his children, so the LORD has Compassion on those who fear Him.’ Psalm 103:13
‘The LORD is Gracious and Righteous; our God is full of Compassion.’ Psalm 116:5
‘Let Your Compassion come to me that I may Live, for Your Law is my delight.’ Psalm 119:77
‘Your Compassion, LORD, is Great; preserve my life according to Your Laws.’ Psalm 119:156
‘The LORD is Good to all; He has Compassion on all He has Made.’ Psalm 145:9
‘Jesus went through all the towns and villages, teaching in their synagogues, proclaiming the good news of The Kingdom and healing every disease and sickness. When he saw the crowds, he had compassion on them, because they were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd. Then he said to his disciples, “The harvest is plentiful but the workers are few. Ask the Lord of the harvest, therefore, to send out workers into his harvest field.’ Matthew 9:35-38
‘Praise the LORD, my Soul; all my inmost being, Praise His Holy Name. Praise the LORD, my Soul, and forget not all His Benefits— Who Forgives all your sins and Heals all your diseases, Who Redeems your Life from the pit and crowns you with Love and Compassion, Who Satisfies your desires with Good things so that your youth is renewed like the eagle’s.’ Psalm 103:1-5
‘As Jesus and his disciples were leaving Jericho, a large crowd followed him. Two blind men were sitting by the roadside, and when they heard that Jesus was going by, they shouted, “lord, Son of David, have mercy on us!” The crowd rebuked them and told them to be quiet, but they shouted all the louder, “lord, Son of David, have mercy on us!” Jesus stopped and called them. “What do you want me to do for you?” he asked. “lord,” they answered, “we want our sight.” Jesus had compassion on them and touched their eyes. Immediately they received their sight and followed him.’ Matthew 20:29-34
'When Jesus heard what had happened, he withdrew by boat privately to a solitary place. Hearing of this, the crowds followed him on foot from the towns. When Jesus landed and saw a large crowd, he had compassion on them and healed their sick. As evening approached, the disciples came to him and said, “This is a remote place, and it’s already getting late. Send the crowds away, so they can go to the villages and buy themselves some food.” ‘Jesus replied, “They do not need to go away. You give them something to eat.” “We have here only five loaves of bread and two fish,” they answered. “Bring them here to me,” he said. And he directed the people to sit down on the grass. Taking the five loaves and the two fish and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke the loaves. Then he gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the people. They all ate and were satisfied, and the disciples picked up twelve basketfuls of broken pieces that were left over. The number of those who ate was about five thousand men, besides women and children.’ Matthew 14:13-21
‘Jesus continued: “There was a man who had two sons. The younger one said to his father, ‘Father, give me my share of the estate.’ So he divided his property between them. “Not long after that, the younger son got together all he had, set off for a distant country and there squandered his wealth in wild living. After he had spent everything, there was a severe famine in that whole country, and he began to be in need. So he went and hired himself out to a citizen of that country, who sent him to his fields to feed pigs. He longed to fill his stomach with the pods that the pigs were eating, but no one gave him anything. “When he came to his senses, he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired servants have food to spare, and here I am starving to death! I will set out and go back to my father and say to him: Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son; make me like one of your hired servants.’ So he got up and went to his father. “But while he was still a long way off, his father saw him and was filled with compassion for him; he ran to his son, threw his arms around him and kissed him. “The son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son.’ “But the father said to his servants, ‘Quick! Bring the best robe and put it on him. Put a ring on his finger and sandals on his feet. Bring the fattened calf and kill it. Let’s have a feast and celebrate. For this son of mine was dead and is alive again; he was lost and is found.’ So they began to celebrate. “Meanwhile, the older son was in the field. When he came near the house, he heard music and dancing. So he called one of the servants and asked him what was going on. ‘Your brother has come,’ he replied, ‘and your father has killed the fattened calf because he has him back safe and sound.’ “The older brother became angry and refused to go in. So his father went out and pleaded with him. But he answered his father, ‘Look! All these years I’ve been slaving for you and never disobeyed your orders. Yet you never gave me even a young goat so I could celebrate with my friends. But when this son of yours who has squandered your property with prostitutes comes home, you kill the fattened calf for him!’ “‘My son,’ the father said, ‘you are always with me, and everything I have is yours. But we had to celebrate and be glad, because this brother of yours was dead and is alive again; he was lost and is found.’ ”’ Luke 15:11-32
‘He who conceals his transgressions will not prosper, but he who confesses and forsakes them will find compassion.’ Proverbs 28:13
‘And the word of the Lord came to Zechariah, saying, “Thus says the Lord of hosts, render true judgments, show kindness and mercy to one another, do not oppress the widow, the fatherless, the sojourner, or the poor, and let none of you devise evil against another in your heart.” Zechariah 7:8-10
‘Keep your heart with all vigilance, for from it flow the springs of life.’ Proverbs 4:23
‘Whoever is generous to the poor lends to the Lord, and he will repay him for his deed.’ Proverbs 19:17
‘The Lord is my Shepherd; I shall not want. He makes me lie down in green pastures. He leads me beside still waters. He restores my soul. He leads me in paths of righteousness for His Name's sake. Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for You are with me; your Rod and your Staff, they comfort me. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; you anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows.’ Psalm 23:1-6
‘Light dawns in the darkness for the upright; he is gracious, merciful, and righteous.’ Psalm 112:4
‘Can a woman forget her nursing child, that she should have no compassion on the son of her womb? Even these may forget, yet I will not forget you. Behold, I have engraved you on the Palms of my hands; your walls are continually before me.’ Isaiah 49:15-16
‘Goodness does not consist in turning your face towards East or West. The truly good are those who believe in God and the Last Day, in the angels, the Scripture, and the prophets; who give away some of their wealth, however much they cherish it, to their relatives, to orphans, the needy, travellers and beggars and to liberate those in debt and bondage; those who keep up the prayers and pay the prescribed alms; who keep pledges whenever they make them; who are steadfast in misfortune, adversity and times of danger. These are the ones who are true, and it is they who are aware of God.’ Quran 2:178
‘Indeed, God enjoins justice, and the doing of good to others; and giving like kindred; and forbids indecency, and manifest evil, and wrongful transgression. He admonished you that you may take heed.’ Quran 16:91
‘And as for those who strive in Our path — We will surely guide them in Our ways. And Indeed, God is with those who are of service to others.’ Quran 29:70
‘Indeed, God is with those who are righteous and those who do good.’ Quran 16:129
‘The reward of goodness is nothing but goodness.’ Quran 55:61
‘And good and evil are not alike. Repel evil with that which is best. And lo, he between whom and thyself was enmity will become as though he were a warm friend. But none is granted it save those who are steadfast; and none is granted it save those who possess a large share of good.’ Quran 41:35-36
‘Those who spend in prosperity and adversity, and those who suppress anger and pardon men; and God loves those who do good.’ Quran 3:135
‘So, because of their breaking their covenant, We have cursed them, and have hardened their hearts. They pervert the words from their proper places and have forgotten a good part of that with which they were exhorted. And thou wilt not cease to discover treachery on their part, except in a few of them. So pardon them and turn away from them. Surely, God loves those who do good.’ Quran 5:14
‘So God rewarded them, for what they said, with Gardens beneath which streams flow. Therein shall they abide; and that is the reward of those who do good.’ Quran 5:86
‘And remember the time when We said: “Enter this village and eat therefrom — wherever you will — plentifully; and enter the gate submissively and say: ‘God! forgive us our sins.’ We shall forgive you your sins and We shall give increase to those who do good.’ Quran 2:59
‘And create not disorder in the earth after it has been set in order, and call upon Him in fear and hope. Surely, the mercy of God is nigh unto those who do good.’ Quran 7:57
‘No blame lies on the weak, nor on the sick, nor on those who find naught to spend, if they are sincere to God and His Messenger. There is no cause of reproach against those who do good deeds; and God is Most Forgiving, Merciful.’ Quran 9:91
‘And thus did We establish Joseph in the land. He dwelt therein wherever he pleased. We bestow Our mercy on whomsoever We please, and We suffer not the reward of the righteous to perish.’ Quran 12:57
‘They said, ‘O exalted one, he has a very aged father, so take one of us in his stead; for we see thee to be of those who do good.’ Quran 12:79
‘They replied, ‘Art thou Joseph?’ He said, ‘Yes, I am Joseph and this is my brother. God has indeed been gracious to us. Verily, whoso is righteous and is steadfast — God will never suffer the reward of the good to be lost.’ Quran 12:91
‘A guidance and a mercy for those who do good.’ Quran 31:4
‘And remember the time when We took a covenant from the children of Israel: ‘You shall worship nothing but God and show kindness to parents and to kindred and orphans and the poor, and speak to men kindly and observe Prayer, and pay the Zakat;’ …’Quran 2:84
‘They ask thee what they shall spend. Say: ‘Whatever of good and abundant wealth you spend should be for parents and near relatives and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer. And whatever good you do, surely God knows it well.’ Quran 2:216
‘And worship God and associate naught with Him, and show kindness to parents, and to kindred, and orphans, and the needy, and to the neighbour that is a kinsman and the neighbour that is a stranger, and the companion by your side, and the wayfarer, and those whom your right hands possess. Surely, God loves not the proud and the boastful.’ Quran 4:37
‘Say, ‘Come, I will rehearse to you what your Lord has forbidden: that you associate not anything as partner with Him and that you do good to parents, and that you kill not your children for fear of poverty — it is We Who provide for you and for them — and that you approach not foul deeds, whether open or secret; and that you kill not the life which God has made sacred, save by right. That is what He has enjoined upon you, that you may understand.’ Quran 6:152